IUGG Annual Report 1999
Jo Ann Joselyn
The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), an international non- governmental organization established in 1919, is one of the scientific Unions grouped within the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU).
IUGG is dedicated to the scientific study of the Earth and the applications of the knowledge gained by such studies to the needs of society, such as mineral resources, reduction of the effects of natural hazards and environmental preservation.
The Union is a purely scientific organization. Its objectives are the promotion and co-ordination of physical, chemical and mathematical studies of the Earth and its environment in space. These studies include the shape of the Earth, its gravitational and magnetic fields, the dynamics of the Earth as a whole and of its component parts, the Earth's internal structure, composition and tectonics, the generation of magmas, volcanism and rock formation, the hydrological cycle including snow and ice, all aspects of the oceans, the atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetosphere and solar-terrestrial relations, and analogous problems associated with the Moon and other planets. Union activities embrace studies of the Earth by artificial satellites and other techniques for deploying instruments at high altitude.
The IUGG has initiated and vigorously supported collaborative efforts that have led to highly productive world-wide interdisciplinary research programs, such as the International Geophysical Year (1957-58), the Upper Mantle Project (1964-70), the Geodynamics Project (1972-79), the Global Atmospheric Research Programme (1970-80) and the International Lithosphere Programme (1981- ). These programs have set a model for international interdisciplinary co-operation. One major contribution has been the creation, through ICSU, of the World Data Center system, from which the data gathered during these major programs are available to research workers everywhere.
The IUGG co-operates with UNESCO in the study of natural catastrophes. It is also represented on the ICSU Committee for Science and Technology in Developing Countries, and gives particular emphasis to the scientific needs of the Third World (e.g. Geodesy in Africa, International Water Resources, etc...).
The Union also co-sponsors the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services (FAGS) and is a partner with other Unions of ICSU in Inter-Union Commissions.
The official languages of the Union are English and French; the internet site is www.iugg.org.
By their very nature, geodetic and geophysical studies require a high degree of international co-operation as well as effective central co-ordination. During 1999, the Union had 75 Member Countries. However, the number of member countries may change from one General Assembly to the next due to new applications or because some countries must unfortunately be expelled for non-payment of dues during several years. Several countries, being in serious arrears of payment, are in observer status. During the 1999 IUGG General Assembly, a new category of membership, Associate Membership, was approved. Associate Member countries must establish a National Committee for IUGG but do not pay dues. Associate Members may attend all IUGG scientific and social activities, but may not participate in Council meetings.
The Union comprises seven semi-autonomous Associations, each responsible for a specific range of topics or themes within the overall scope of the Union's activities and each with a sub-structure. The Associations convene their own general assemblies and sponsor particular symposia, often in partnership with one another, and, like the Union, are managed by a Bureau and Executive Committee whose members are elected during their General Assemblies. Within its own discipline each Association is responsible for determining its own program of investigations and for supporting the activities of its own component parts. The Union and the Associations publish information bulletins of meetings of the Associations and of symposia sponsored by the Associations.
These seven International Associations and their sub-components are shown below:
International Association of Geodesy (IAG/AIG)
International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA/AIGA)
International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS/AIHS)
International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS/AIMSA)
International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO/AISPO)
International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI/AISPIT)
International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI/AIVCIT)
Owing to the interactive nature of the subject fields managed by the Union's Associations, a number of Inter-Association Commissions have been established which serve the Union and the international geophysical community by promoting the study of particular interdisciplinary problems:
In addition, IUGG and the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) operate the Scientific Committee on the Lithosphere (SCL) within ICSU.
General Assemblies have been held since 1922 and, since 1963, at 4 years intervals. The most recent General Assembly, our 22nd, was held 19-30 July, 1999, on the campus of the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. The next General Assembly will be held in Sapporo, Japan in July, 2003.
The seven Associations of IUGG meet at these General Assemblies and organize separate or inter-Association symposia. The Union itself arranges lectures of high general interest, and interdisciplinary Symposia.
Each IUGG National Committee, which functions as a non-governmental entity in its relations with IUGG, is represented at the General Assemblies of the Union by delegates appointed by its adhering body. During these assemblies, policies governing the Union are agreed on, research programs requiring international participation are formulated and coordinated and plans are drawn for their execution. The scientific results of programs in progress are discussed at the numerous symposia, Commission and Working Group meetings and other gatherings of scientists that are held during these assemblies.
Each Association organizes its own scientific assembly in between general assemblies of the Union. These are very important venues where scientific progress is reported and Association business is conducted. Associations may sometimes meet jointly with the purpose of promoting interdisciplinary science.
The numerous topical and regional symposia and workshops organized on other occasions by the Associations, together with the general assemblies, provide opportunity for geodesists and geophysicists from the majority of the countries of the world to discuss their respective methodologies, results and hypotheses and to plan collaborative research projects. The symposia, often held in non-urban locales, are intended to be particularly helpful to the younger scientists from the developing countries of the world.
Responsibility for directing the Union's affairs is vested in the IUGG Council by the Statutes and Bylaws. The IUGG Council consists of the Council Delegates, who are designated for each Council meeting by their adhering body as the of their respective country. A Bureau, an Executive Committee and a Finance Committee administer the IUGG between Council meetings. The Executive Committee has the particular responsibility of overseeing the scientific programs of the Union. There is no permanent Secretariat; the National Committee of the Secretary General is expected to provide administrative support for Union affairs.
The Bureau of the Union is composed of the following officers, elected July, 1999:
The Executive Committee consists of the Bureau, the past President of the Union (P. Wyllie, USA) and the Presidents of the seven Associations, namely:
The Finance Committee is composed of:
The Bureau, the Executive Committee and the Council each met several times during the two-week period (July 19-30) of the General Assembly in Birmingham. A total of 41 National Delegates presented their credentials for the Council meetings; 3 of the represented countries were in Observer Status (in arrears of payment of dues) and were not eligible to vote. All actions are reported in detail in the Assembly Comptes Rendus, available both in printed form and on a CD-ROM125
Actions of the Council:
The IUGG Bureau will meet in Boulder, Colorado in 2000, followed by an informal meeting of the Executive Committee. A regular meeting of the Executive Committee will take place in 2001.
The scientific program of the General Assembly consisted of four Union Lectures, seven Union Symposia, and 49 joint symposia arranged among the seven Associations and the Inter-Association and Inter-Union Commissions and Committees. There were 110 Symposia convened by the Associations in their areas of specialization. There were 4052 registrants from 89 countries. Grants to assist participation to 566 persons totaled 230,000 British pounds. The Keynote Speech was presented by Rt Hon. Michael Meacher MP, Minister of the Environment for the United Kingdom.
The Resolutions of the XXII General Assembly addressed the following topics:
The following reports, prepared by the Secretaries General of the Associations (shown below), have been edited for the sake of brevity. These reports illustrate the impressive range of activities within each Association as well as their dedication to supporting science within developing countries. Each Association has an internet site where much more information can be found.
(1) Central Bureau activities.
(2) The Executive Committee (EC).
During the IAG General Assembly in Birmingham the Council had meetings where the new EC was elected, the auditors reported on the accounts, and a new budget was approved. The Council adopted a number of resolutions and approved the proposal that a special committee should be established to review the IAG structure. An account of the administrative meetings will be published in the Geodesists Handbook, to be published in the spring of 2000.
(3) Symposia and meetings.
(3.2) Other meetings.
(4) Educational Activities.
(6) Coordination with organizations within surveying, cartography and
The main activity for 1999 was the participation in XXII IUGG General Assembly, July 18 - 30, 1999 in Birmingham, UK. A scientific highlight of the meeting, the first union lecture on "MARS AND THE SEARCH FOR LIFE ELSEWHERE," was presented by IAGA Member, Dr. Edward C. Stone (USA). 915 of the participants representing 60 countries registered an affiliation with IAGA. IAGA hosted 67 symposia addressing diverse topics from the Earth's interior to the Sun and beyond. Approximately 900 papers were presented in these symposia. IAGA co-sponsored 27 Inter-Association Symposia and Workshops including those on scientific live issues such as the working of the geodynamo, space weather, climate change and electromagnetic effects associated with volcanoes and earthquakes. Approximately 1,250 papers were presented in these joint symposia. An Inter-Association Commission with participation by IASPEI and IAVCEI was established on Electromagnetic Studies of Earthquakes and Volcanoes. IAGA members co-convened 3 of the 7 Union Symposia. With support of the local organizing committee, travel grants were issued to 119 deserving participants, or 17% of the applicants.
The General Assembly was used to establish international agreements on models and guidelines. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field for 2000 was issued in November 1999. The revised international exchange format for geomagnetic data was agreed upon and will be issued in January 2000. The Polar Cap (PC) index of geomagnetic activity in the polar region, which is also an indirect measure of the interplanetary magnetic field, was officially sanctioned. In addition, IAGA resolved to encourage collaborative programs to mark the 50th anniversary of the International Geophysical Year.
IAGA News No. 30, which focused on activities during the XXII IUGG General Assembly, was published in October 1999. The Web site has been an effective mechanism to disseminate information and news in a timely manner. IAGA's ICSU Grant for 1999 was used to support efforts to design and produce a new informational Brochure and Poster. IAGA applied for and received an ICSU grant for Year 2000 to support INTERMAGNET efforts to modernize and standardize global observations of the magnetic field.
Dr. Nguyen Thi Kim Thoa invited all delegates to the 9th Scientific Assembly of IAGA to be held jointly with IASPEI in Hanoi, Vietnam in August 2001.
IAGA Co-Sponsored Symposia and Workshops
Executive Committee Meetings
IAGA Conference of Delegates
The Conference of Delegates meetings were convened by Dr. M. Kono, IAGA President, on July 19th and 28th during the IAGA General Assembly in Birmingham, UK. Twenty-four accredited delegates answered roll call on the 19th and thirty-four answered on the 28th. Thirty-nine member countries sent delegates with appropriate credentials. The Conference approved the minutes of the 1997 Conference of Delegates, the 1999 Report of the Finance Committee, and discussed and approved the actions of the Executive Committee since the 8th IAGA Scientific Assembly in Uppsala Sweden. The new nominating and election procedures designed to promote diversity in member and discipline participation proposed by the Nominations Committee were adopted. Revised Statutes and By-Laws designed to remove internal ambiguities and inconsistencies with IUGG Statutes and By-Laws were approved. New officers and members of the Executive Committee were elected.
IAGA Resolutions in an Abbreviated Form:
In 1999, IAHS focussed on the General Assembly at Birmingham. However, convening of meetings, publishing proceedings of symposia and conferences and production of the Hydrological Sciences Journal and Newsletters of the Association continued to be major activities.
IAHS Symposia at Birmingham:
IAHS Workshops at Birmingham:
Inter-Association Symposium at Birmingham:
Other Meetings organized/sponsored by IAHS in 1999:
IAHS Publications in 1999
Six issues of the Hydrological Sciences Journal were published and three issues of the IAHS Newsletter were distributed. The following IAHS Red Books were published:
Special Blue Book Series:
Hydrology Prize and Tison Award 1999
The 1999 Tison Award (made to a young scientist in recognition of an outstanding contribution to hydrology) was made to Dr Dag Lohmann of Germany. [G.J. Young (Canada)]
IUGG99 General (Scientific) Assembly in Birmingham
IAMAS Administrative Matters, Birmingham.
IAMAS2001 will take place in Innsbruck, 10-18 July, 2001. The scientific program was discussed in Birmingham and themes and symposia were suggested by the IAMAS Executive Committee and refined later in the year.
The IAMAS financial records for the period 1995-1998 showed average IUGG allocations of $24630/a, with an additional income component of $10660/a of "head taxes" charged at the IUGG95 Boulder and the IAMAS97 Melbourne meetings. These head taxes were fully transferred into travel support for IAMAS and IAMAS Commission assemblies. Administrative charges were an average of $2200. The cost incurred during the Toronto tenure for 1997 and 1998 were reduced to $550 total due to Canadian institutional support. The books were scrutinized by Profs. Ron Stewart and Michael Kuhn. On 31.12.1998 they show reserves of $79 010.59, mostly necessary for the organization of IUGG99 in Birmingham.
The Alliance for Capacity Transfer (ACT)
An information document on the Progress and Status of ACT by IUGG (IAMAS) was submitted to WMO Congress XIII in May 1999. It was presented by the Secretary General of IAMAS who also serves as IUGG's manager of ACT and represents IUGG in WMO and in the World Climate Research Program, WCRP], and was well received.
ACT has been presented to all IAMAS bodies and was endorsed at all levels. But it became clear that input from the developing world is needed in the design of the different parts of the project. That process is being started now. In 1999 $29,941.68 were spent from the IUGG grant of $30 000, in addition to other resources. All the costs incurred in the past in relation to ACT have been carried by IAMAS.
Expressions of Appreciation
During 1999, the principal activity of the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans (IAPSO) was participation in the IUGG General Assembly in Birmingham, UK, reported in detail on the IAPSO Web page. The portions of the abstract books related to IAPSO led symposia and joint symposia, and joint symposia led by other Associations in which IAPSO participated, are now posted on the IAPSO Web page. In conjunction with the General Assembly, IAPSO held two meetings of its Executive Committee and one plenary business meeting with national delegates at which new IAPSO officers were elected.
Three IAPSO Commissions met at Birmingham, the Commission on Sea Ice; the Commission on Mean Sea Level and Tides; and the Commission on Cooperation with Developing Countries. The Tsunami Commission, jointly sponsored with IASPEI and IAVCEI, also met in Birmingham. The Executive Committee voted in favor of disestablishing the IAPSO Commission on Natural Marine Hazards and supporting an Inter-Association Commission on Natural Hazards in its place. The Executive Committee also was in favor of supporting several other new Inter-Association Commissions.
Activities of the Permanent Service on Mean Sea Level (sponsored by IAPSO), and IAPSO's Standard Sea Water Service (operated by Ocean Scientific International) continued in 1999.
Planning continued for a Joint IAPSO/IABO Assembly in Mar del Plata Argentina in October 2001. A Program Committee was established to prepare the final technical program for that Assembly and to obtain convenors and co-convenors. IAPSO has joined with IAG to support a week-long workshop in Brazil in 2000, with a follow-up workshop proposed in conjunction with the 2001 Assembly in Argentina. Discussions were also initiated in regard to the site for an Assembly in 2005.
The IAPSO Secretariat continues to respond to various inquiries for information. [F.E. Camfield (USA)]
The 22nd General Assembly of IUGG and the 30th General Assembly of IASPEI were held at the University of Birmingham, Birmingham, U.K., from 18-30 July 1999. The IUGG General Assembly was attended by over 4,000 scientists, more than 500 of whom were affiliated with IASPEI. About 5,700 abstracts were submitted of which 989 were presented in oral and poster sessions of 17 IASPEI-led symposia and workshops. A full report on the General Assembly can be found on the IASPEI Home Page. Major items of business accomplished at the Assembly were: (1) Election of IASPEI officers and appointment of Association Representatives and Commission Chairs for the 1999-2003 period; and (2) Development of the IASPEI scientific program for the 31st General Assembly of IASPEI, to be held jointly with IAGA in Hanoi, Vietnam, 18-30 August 2001.
New Manual of Seismological Observatory Practice
Activities Involving Developing Countries
IASPEI continues development of its Home Page on the WorldWideWeb which contains organizational information, a publications list, meeting announcements and Internet connections and other information of interest to IASPEI scientists.
The IASPEI Secretariat with the assistance of Carl Kisslinger (Editor) has published a 26 page Brochure entitled "The International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior: Cooperation for Better Understanding of the Earth". Copies can be obtained from the IASPEI Secretariat.
The IASPEI Committee for Developing Countries circulates biannually from Hyderabad a Newsletter intended to provide a forum for exchanging news and views of geophysical importance among geoscientists, particularly from developing countries. Hard copy versions of this Newsletter are also distributed to those who do not have Internet addresses on the IASPEI Bulk E-Mail System.
Proceedings of various Symposia from the IASPEI 29th General Assembly in Thessaloniki, Greece were published in Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, and Tectonophysics in 1999.
Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP) was launched in 1992 by the International Lithosphere Program (ILP) with the support of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), and endorsed as a demonstration program in the framework of the United Nations International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (UN/IDNDR). GSHAP has now come to an end with the completion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map. The global map, printed by the USGS, combines the effort of more than 500 scientists, with 95 principal authors. A special volume of Annali di Geofisica, contains all reports and a folded copy of the map. All the results of the program, the regional reports and maps, and the global map can be found on the GSHAP site at http://seismo.ethz.ch/GSHAP/. The volume and the map are available free of charge, and will be globally distributed. Instructions to order volume and map are on the web.
In 1998 a five-year project under the International Geological Correlation Program (IGCP) of UNESCO, IGCP 428 "Climate and Boreholes", was begun. The project investigates the subsurface temperature anomalies induced by downward diffusing surface temperature variations and constructs models of palaeoclimatic ground temperature histories. The project involves most of the heat flow community and further extends the activities of the IHFC Working Group on Reconstruction of Climate Change from Subsurface Temperature Data. The principal investigators are V. Cermak, H.N. Pollack and C. Clauser. In 1999 IGCP 428 co-sponsored a workshop on "Past Climate Change Inferred from the Underground Temperature Field", 14-17 March 1999, at Sinaia, Romania, at which 18 scientific communications were presented. Further, a project group meeting was arranged as part of the MC02 Symposium "Detection and Attribution of Climate Change" during the 22nd IUGG General Assembly at Birmingham, UK.
IASPEI continues its participation in STEND - System for Technology Exchange for Natural Disasters - an information exchange program aimed at increasing awareness of available technology. STEND is being developed by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in Geneva, Switzerland.
The IASPEI Seismological Software Library (SSL) includes the executable code, examples on floppy diskettes, and printed documentation.
Under the auspices of the Working Group on Personal Computers, a PC shareware library is being published on diskette, including files with short-form manuals of the programs. The Library provides for fast and wide distribution of geophysical programs and utilities, reduced or demonstration versions of geophysical software, and beta-versions of new programs to be included in future volumes of the SSL. [E.R. Engdahl (USA)]
IAVCEI completed a fourth year of individual membership with a paid membership of 552 members for 1999, the highest total to date. The top eleven countries in terms of memberships were the USA (178), Japan (69), Italy (57), Australia (44), the UK (43), Germany (37), New Zealand (27), Russia (23), Romania (22), France (21), and Mexico (16).
Approximately 200 IAVCEI members attended the IUGG meeting in Birmingham in July. Fully 85 percent of the IAVCEI scientific sessions were multi-disciplinary sessions co-sponsored with other associations. The number of attendees was lower than for typical association meetings, but the co-sponsored sessions allowed scientists from other disciplines to interact with volcanologists.
A new slate of officers was elected in the spring of 1999 and assumed their duties in July 1999 at the Birmingham IUGG meeting. In addition, the past president moved to a new role and a Deputy Sec.-Gen. was appointed:
IAVCEI has 14 active commissions. Three commissions had changes in leadership in 1999. All commissions are currently under review, a process to be formalized in July 2000 at the Bali meeting.
Preparation for the upcoming Bali meeting provided the first crisis for the new executive committee when political unrest and violence in nearby East Timor occurred in the early fall of 1999. Dozens of letters were received, some calling for moving the conference, some for outright cancellation, and many in support of the local Indonesian organizing committee. After careful consideration a decision was reached by the IAVCEI Executive Committee to proceed with the meeting. All letters received were answered individually, and a statement by the Executive Committee was added to the IAVCEI web page.
A new editor was appointed for IAVCEI's Bulletin of Volcanology. Tim Druitt (France) assumed duties in September 1999. He is in the process of selecting several new Associate Editors. Additional goals include shortening the time of the review process and assuring production of the journal on a more regular schedule.
IAVCEI sold several educational products in 1999. Two videos on 1) understanding volcanic hazards and 2) reducing volcanic risk were produced professionally under contract with IAVCEI. Over 80 videos were sold in 1999. Also, a volcano calendar was produced by IAVCEI members and was printed and marketed by a professional calendar company. Over 3,800 calendars were sold and an additional 800 were distributed by IAVCEI to various scientific, educational, and governmental organizations. IAVCEI received a small royalty payment ($137 US) for the calendars. [S. McNutt (USA)]
In 1999, IUGG was awarded a Category I UNESCO grant of $30,000 and two Category II grants totaling $11,000. Brief reports on these grants follow.
The Alliance for Capacity Transfer project was proposed by the International Association for Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS) in cooperation with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). This activity, encompassing meteorological and atmospheric sciences including hydrology and oceanography, sought to stimulate and expand global collaboration and exchange of knowledge, experience, information, data, and software within and across the boundaries between National Meteorological and Hydrological Services, the university community, the scientific community at large and the private sector through the use of the Internet.
RECOVER (Remotely Controlled Monitoring of Vertical Crustal Movements at a Tide Gauge, a project of the International Association of Geodesy) received $5000 from the US National Academy of Science. The original proposal for $50,000 would have partially supported a test site in the Caribbean to monitor geophysical parameters including tides using GPS techniques, thus encouraging development in those countries. It is very important to initiate scientific cooperation in this area of the world, which could be much affected by a sea level rise or change in ocean current pattern. The awarded amount required that the activity be scaled back to a seminar/workshop in Barbados, where a permanent GPS station is already operational and where the potential and involvement of the local research institution in sea-level studies is such that future observational/research work might be initiated. This seminar is now planned for October, 2000. Speakers have been invited and the scientific program and meeting agenda are in preparation.
The International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy received $6000 from ICSU to support efforts to design and produce an informational Brochure and Poster. The Brochure and Poster illustrate global importance of IAGA's work and how it impacts human life daily through the high-technology applications now common in industrialized society. While the Brochure and Poster are largely visual, needed explanations are printed in English, French and Spanish. The Brochure will be useful for attracting young people to a scientific career by portraying the excitement and challenge of understanding both the basic science and predicting Earth's global magnetic field and ionized upper atmosphere, recently termed "space weather." The Brochure and Poster are expected to evolve into an internet site easily translated in multiple languages.
The new IUGG Bureau elected in 1999 will meet in Boulder, Colorado on August 7-8, 2000. The Bureau meeting will be followed by an informal meeting of the Association Presidents and Secretaries-General in order to orient new officers and exchange information. Scientific planning will begin for the IUGG General Assembly in 2003.
The administrative records of the IUGG have been accumulating since 1919, the year IUGG began. They have been passed to successive Secretary-Generals in turn, but the volume of paper has become difficult to handle. It is expected that a permanent repository will be found for these records, so that they can be preserved and will be accessible for scholars of the history of geoscience.
Special efforts will be undertaken to encourage new members and to re-establish relations with those countries whose membership has lapsed. A new IUGG Statute permits a category of Associate Members in the case that a country's adhering body cannot shoulder the financial responsibility of full membership.
A new IUGG Brochure will be designed and produced as a strategy to help recruit new members and promote Union activities.
Dates and places of the Scientific Assemblies of the Associations
Date and place of the 23nd Union General Assembly:
July 2003, Sapporo (Japan)